Cooking and Baking Ingredient Substitutions

When you’re in a pinch and missing a staple ingredient, consider using a suitable substitution. Depending on what you’re making, many recipes are made just as good, if not better, with alternative ingredients. You might even discover you like your stand-in ingredient more than the called-for item. For your convenience, we’ve made this substitution list easily printable, so you can hang it inside your pantry, cabinet or on your refrigerator for quick and easy reference!

To print, click here.

INGREDIENT AMOUNT SUBSTITUTE
BAKING POWDER 1 t ¼ t baking soda and ½ t cream of tartar
BAKING SODA 1 t 4 t baking powder
BREAD CRUMBS 1 c 1 crushed cracker
2 oz dried bread (~2 c cubed) to make your own
BUTTER (FOR BAKING) 1 c ½ c Greek yogurt
½ c sour cream
½ c nut butter and ½ c oil (½ c coconut or vegetable)
¾ c olive oil
1 c beans, pureed
1 c avocado, pureed
1 c applesauce or ½ c applesauce and ½ c oil
1 c pumpkin, pureed
BUTTERMILK 1 c 1 c whole milk (or 2% or heavy cream) and 1 T lemon juice or distilled white vinegar
COCONUT MILK 1 c 1 c whole or 2% milk
COCONUT OIL 1 c 1 c other oil, such as vegetable or olive
CORNSTARCH 1 T 3 T flour
2 T arrowroot or tapioca flour or rice flour
EGGS 1 egg 1/4 c unsweetened applesauce
1/4 c mashed banana
1 T ground flaxseeds and 3 T water
3 T aquafaba (chickpea water)
FLOUR, ALL-PURPOSE (FOR THICKENING) 1 T 1 ½ t cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch
1 T granular tapioca or 1 T quick-cooking tapioca
FLOUR, ALL-PURPOSE 1 c 1 c and 2 T cake flour
1 c rolled oats, crushed or processed until fine
1 c rye or rice flour
Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in a reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than ¼ of white flour in a cake. In other recipes, substitute whole wheat flour for ¼ to ½ of white flour.
FLOUR, SELF-RISING 1 c 1 c minus 2 t all-purpose flour, 1 ½ t baking powder, and ½ t salt
HEAVY CREAM 1 c 1 c evaporated milk
½ c whole milk and ½ plain Greek yogurt
¾ c milk and ⅓ c melted butter
HONEY 1 c 1-1/4 c sugar and ¼ c water
KETCHUP 1 c 1 c tomato sauce, ¼ c brown sugar, and 2 T vinegar
MAYONNAISE (FOR SALAD DRESSING) 1 c 1 c sour cream
1 c plain yogurt
1 c cottage cheese, pureed in a blender
1 egg yolk, 1-1/2 t lemon juice, 1 t white vinegar, 1/4 t mustard, 1/2 t salt, 3/4 c canola oil
MILK, SKIM 1 c 4-5 T non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 c, or follow the package directions
½ c evaporated milk and ½ c water
Note: Non-dairy milks can also stand in for cows’ milk, such as soy, almond or coconut milk
MILK, WHOLE 1 c 1 c reconstituted non-fat dry milk (add 2 T butter or margarine, if desired)
½ cup evaporated milk and ½ cup water
4 T whole dry milk and 1 c water, or follow the package directions
Note: Non-dairy milks can also stand in for cows’ milk, such as soy, almond or coconut milk
TOMATO SAUCE 1 c ½ c tomato paste and ½ c water
SOUR CREAM, CULTURED 1 c 1 c plain yogurt
¾ c milk, ¾ t lemon juice, and 1/3 c butter or margarine
SUGAR, BROWN 1 c firmly packed 1 c granulated sugar and 1-2 T molasses for light (or up to ¼ c for dark)
SUGAR, GRANULATED 1 c 1 c powdered sugar
1 c brown sugar, firmly packed
¾ c honey (decrease liquid called for in the recipe by ¼ c; for each cup of honey in baked goods, add ½ t soda)
1 1/3 c molasses (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/3 c)
1 ½ c corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by ¼ c)
VEGETABLE OIL (FOR BAKING) 1 c 1 c applesauce
1 c fruit puree
VINEGAR, APPLE CIDER 1 T 1 T lemon juice and 1 T lime juice
2 T white wine
VINEGAR, WHITE 1 T 1 T of any of the following: lemon juice, lime juice, cider vinegar or malt vinegar
WHIPPED CREAM 1 c 1 c heavy cream, 1 T sugar, 1 t vanilla, whipped together
YOGURT, PLAIN 1 c 1 c buttermilk
1 c cottage cheese, blended until smooth
1 c sour cream